Influence of binder content on physical and mechanical properties of composite materials such as metal powder-waxy substance
Keywords:paraffin, wax, powder filler, carbonyl iron and nickel, bonding system, FDM 3D printing.
The scientific basis for the development of working materials from waxy highly filled composites for FDM 3D printing using is not yet sufficiently developed. The need to develop such composites is due to the fact that highly filled waxy composites, on the one hand, have low 3D printing temperatures, and on the other hand, the fact that the waxy substance has a low ash content and is completely removed during annealing and subsequent sintering of the residual framework from the filler. Therefore, in this work, the influence of the binder content on the physical and mechanical properties of composite materials such as metal powder - waxy substance in the ratio of metal to waxy substance, as 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20 % (by volume), as well as the shape change of composite samples when they are heated at a temperature from 61 to 230 °C. Carbonyl nickel and carbonyl iron were used as metal powder, and beeswax and paraffin were used as a binder. It was found that the developed surface of particles significantly affects the density dependence, the microhardness and compressive strength of composites from the binder content, the actual density of the composite samples after pressing is less than the calculated by the additivity formula with the binder content up to 40 % (by volume) and only with an increase in the binder content to 50 % (by volume) does the actual density approach the calculated additive; the developed surface of nickel particles several times increases the strength of the composite in comparison with iron at the same binder content, at the same time, the dependences of the microhardness differ significantly: on Ni-wax samples, it tends to decrease with an increase in the wax content, and on samples Fe-paraffin - to an increase, which is due to the influence of such phenomena as adhesion and cohesion, mechanical adhesion. The level of strength of composite samples with a binder content of 40-50 % (by volume) is sufficient so that they do not collapse not only in 3D print head The resulting experimental data can be extended to other similar systems when creating working materials for FDM 3D printing based on carbonyl nickel and iron powders.
Guo N., Leu, M.C. Additive manufactur-ing: Technology, applications and research needs. Frontiers Mechanical Eng. 2013, No. 8. P. 215–243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0248-8.
Cruz N., Santos, L., Vasco J., Barreiros F.M. Binder system for fused deposition of metals. Proceedings of the Euro PM2013. Con-gress & Exhibition (15–18 September 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden). EPMA: Greece, Athens, 2013. P. 79–84. URL: https://www.epma.com/publications/euro-pm-proceedings/product/ep13021.
Ryu S., Han S., Kim J., Moon H., Kim J., & Ko S.W. Tensile and compressive strength characteristics of Aluminized Paraffin Wax Fuel for various particle size and contents. Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers. 2016. Vol. 20, No. 5. P. 70–76. DOI: 10.6108/KSPE.2016.20.5.070.
Ivanovskiy L. E. Entsiklopediya voskov. Tom 1. Voski i ih vazhneyshie svoystva / Per. s nem. V.V. Zotovoy; pod red. kand. geol.-mineral. nauk V.N. Muratova. L.: Gostoptehizdat, 1956. 146 р. [in Russian]
Mohan N., Senthil P., Vinodh S., Jayanth N. A review on composite materials and process parameters optimisation for the fused deposi-tion modelling process. Virtual and Physical Proto-typing. 2017. Vol. 12, No. 1. P. 47–59. DOI: 10.1080/17452759.2016.1274490.
Kadiresh P.N. Mechanical characteristics of paraffin Wax-HTPB based hybrid rocket fuel. Proc. of Int. Conf. of Aerospace and Me-chanical Engineering. 2019. P. 91–103. URL: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-981-15-4756-0_9
Panyshko Yu. M., Kovtsun V.I., Kozii R.S., Tarasov V.V. Kompleksna kharakterystyka bdzholynoho vosku (Ohliad literatury) Zdorovyi sposib zhyttia: zb. nauk. st. Lviv, 2010. Vyp. 49. P. 20-25. [in Russian]
Tafti A. A., Demers V., Vachon G., Brailovski V. Effect of binder constituents and solids loading on the rheological behavior of irregular iron-based feedstocks. J. Manufactur-ing Sci. Eng. 2021. Vol. 143, No. 3. P. 12.
Solomatov V.I. Razvitie polistrukturnoi teorii kompozitsionnyh stroitelnyh materialov. IVUZ; Stroitelstvo. Novosibirsk, 1985. No 8. P. 58-64. [in Russian]
Solomatov V.I., Bobryshev A.I., Himmler K.G. Polimernye kompozitsionnye materialy v stroitelstve. M.: Stroiizdat, 1988. 308 p. [in Russian]
Tretyakov V.I. Osnovyi metallovedeni-ya i tehnologii proizvodstva spechennyih tverdyih splavov. M.: Metallurgiya, 1976. 528 p. [in Russian]
How to Cite